United Democratic Front UDF and Inkatha Freedom Party, Mr Velaphi Ndlovu, an IFP parliamentarian in the Kwazulu homeland claims that attacks by IFP men on UDF family members were self-defence. This was despite the fact that they were not party to any attack against the IFP. Close to 150 people had been killed in this war that started shortly after the emergence of the UDF as a front for the African National Congress. The IFP saw the emergences of the popular UDF as a threat to its stronghold and control of rural Kwazulu. To make matters tense both organisations were on a recruitment drive to expand their membership to areas formally not under their control. However, the position of the IFP was threatened because the area of Pietermaritzburg was outside the unpopular Kwazulu homeland. As a result, chiefs in the area were less inclined to join the IFP and the Inkatha supporting chiefs were also not capable to influence their followers to join the IFP. The intense recruitment drive and suspicion between the IFP and UDF camps led to sporadic attacks against each other.